Document

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 22, 2021
Registration No. 333-
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
________________
TRICIDA, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware46-3372526
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
7000 Shoreline Court
Suite 201
South San Francisco, CA 94080
(415) 429-7800
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
Gerrit Klaerner, Ph.D.
Chief Executive Officer & President
Tricida, Inc.
7000 Shoreline Court
Suite 201
South San Francisco, CA 94080
(415) 429-7800
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Geoffrey W. Levin, Esq.
Istvan A. Hajdu, Esq.
Sidley Austin LLP
787 Seventh Avenue
New York, NY 10019
Telephone: (212) 839-5300
Fax: (212) 839-5599
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
From time to time, after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐



CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Amount to be
Registered
Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price Per Unit or Share
Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price
Amount of Registration Fee
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share(1)(2)(2)(3)
Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share(1)(2)(2)(3)
Debt Securities(1)(2)(2)(3)
Warrants(1)(2)(2)(3)
Units(4)(1)(2)(2)(3)
Rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock debt securities or units(5)(1)(2)(2)(3)
Total$250,000,000 $27,275 
____________
(1)Includes an indeterminate aggregate principal amount and number of securities of each identified class of securities up to a proposed aggregate offering price of  $250,000,000, which may be offered by the registrant from time to time in unspecified numbers and at indeterminate prices, and as may be issued upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable anti-dilution provisions. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, or upon exercise of warrants pursuant to the antidilution provisions of such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(2) The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time, in connection with the issuance of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of the security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.
(3)Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.
(4)Each unit will represent an interest in two or more securities registered pursuant to this registration statement, which may or may not be separable. Because the units will provide a right only to purchase such securities offered hereunder, no additional registration fee is required.
(5)Rights will represent rights to purchase shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock , debt securities or units registered hereby. Because the rights will provide a right only to purchase such securities offered hereunder, no additional registration fee is required.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to such Section 8(a), may determine.



EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains:
a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $250,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, units, and/or rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or units, from time to time in one or more offerings; and
a sales agreement prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $75,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $75,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $250,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, any portion of the $75,000,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $75,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.



The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state or jurisdiction where such offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, Dated January 22, 2021
PROSPECTUS
https://cdn.kscope.io/1e17f7953aa4a78a8990ebf492c5bff5-tricidalogo2b.jpg
$250,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
Rights to Purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock,
Debt Securities or Units
We may offer and sell from time to time up to $250,000,000 in one or more series or issuances and on terms that we will determine at the time of the offering, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus.
This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. We will provide specific terms of any offering in a prospectus supplement to this prospectus. Any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus relating to a particular offering as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference before you purchase any of the securities offered hereby.
We may offer and sell these securities in the same offering or in separate offerings; to or through underwriters, dealers, and agents; or directly to purchasers. The names of any underwriters, dealers, or agents involved in the sale of our securities, their compensation and any over-allotment options held by them will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. None of our securities may be sold without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “TCDA.” On January 21, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $7.15 per share.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
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INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT RISKS. SEE “RISK FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT, AS WELL AS THE RISK FACTORS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT FROM OUR FILINGS WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, BEFORE INVESTING IN ANY OF OUR SECURITIES.
_________________
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
The date of this prospectus is                     ,2021



Table of Contents
Page
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $250,000,000.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may include a discussion of any risk factors or other special considerations that apply to those securities. The prospectus supplement may also add to, update or change information contained in the prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement.
The prospectus supplement to be attached to the front of this prospectus may describe, as applicable: the terms of the securities offered; the initial or secondary public offering price; the price paid for the securities; net proceeds; and the other specific terms related to the offering of the securities.
You should only rely on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus relating to a particular offering. No person has been authorized to give any information or make any representations in connection with this offering other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus in connection with the offering described herein and therein, and, if given or made, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by us. Neither this prospectus nor any prospectus supplement nor any related free writing prospectus shall constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy offered securities in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offering or solicitation. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits.
You should read the entire prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference before making an investment decision. Neither the delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus nor any sale made hereunder shall under any circumstances imply that the information contained or incorporated by reference herein or in any prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus is correct as of any date subsequent to the date hereof or of such prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus, as applicable. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the applicable documents, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
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THE COMPANY
This summary description about us and our business highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated in this prospectus by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before buying securities in this offering. You should carefully read this entire prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, including each of the documents incorporated herein or therein by reference, before making an investment decision. As used in this prospectus, “we,” “us,” “Tricida” and “our” refer to Tricida, Inc., a Delaware corporation.
Overview
Our goal is to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, or CKD, through the treatment of metabolic acidosis. We are a pharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of our investigational drug candidate, veverimer (also known as TRC101), a non-absorbed, orally administered polymer designed to treat metabolic acidosis by binding and removing acid from the gastrointestinal, or GI, tract. Metabolic acidosis is a serious condition commonly caused by CKD and is believed to accelerate the progression of kidney deterioration. It can also lead to bone loss, muscle wasting and impaired physical function. Metabolic acidosis in patients with CKD is typically a chronic disease and, as such, requires long-term treatment to mitigate its deleterious consequences.
There are currently no FDA-approved therapies for treating chronic metabolic acidosis. We estimate that metabolic acidosis affects approximately 3 million patients with CKD in the United States, and we believe that treating metabolic acidosis and slowing the progression of CKD in patients with metabolic acidosis and CKD represents a significant unmet medical need and market opportunity.
Veverimer is an in-house discovered, new chemical entity. We have a broad intellectual property estate that we believe will provide patent protection for veverimer until at least 2038 in the United States, at least 2035 in Europe, Russia and Mexico, and at least 2034 in Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, and certain other markets.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware on May 22, 2013 and were granted certification of qualification in the state of California on August 5, 2013. Our principal offices are located at 7000 Shoreline Court, Suite 201, South San Francisco, California. Our telephone number is (415) 429-7800. Our website is www.tricida.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website address is not part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein.
Trademarks
Tricida and our logo are some of our tradenames used in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames, and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, our trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus appear without the ™ or ® symbol, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and tradenames.
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves significant risks. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed subsequent to such Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as any amendments thereto, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other subsequent reports we file with the SEC in the future and by information contained in any prospectus supplement related to a particular offering. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business, result of operations and financial conditions and could result in a partial or complete loss of your investment.
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, each prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and each prospectus supplement contains and may contain certain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The words ““aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “potential,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. Those statements appear in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference, particularly in the sections entitled “The Company,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business,” and include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of the Company and management that are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions.
This prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement also contain statements that are based on the current expectations of our company and management. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.
Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. The risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated or implied in our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those set forth above under the section entitled “Risk Factors” and in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained in or incorporated by reference into the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein after we distribute this prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will use the net proceeds from the sale of securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other purposes, working capital, capital expenditures, other corporate expenses and acquisitions of assets, licenses, products, technologies or businesses. The timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including the anticipated growth of our business. As a result, unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds of the offerings. Pending their ultimate use, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description is a general summary of the terms of the shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock that we may issue. The description below and in any prospectus supplement does not include all of the terms of the shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock and should be read together with our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws. This description also summarizes relevant provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or “DGCL.” Therefore, please carefully consider the actual provisions of the amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which have been filed with the SEC as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and the DGCL.
General
Our authorized capital stock consists of 400,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 40,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of September 30, 2020, there were outstanding:
50,184,240 shares of our common stock;
9,790,437 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options;
31,352 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrant; and
104,520 shares of our common stock issuable upon vesting of restricted stock units.
Common Stock
Voting Rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held of record for the election of directors and on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. In the election of directors, a plurality of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders is sufficient to elect a director. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors. In all other matters, except as noted below under “Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Delaware Law” a majority vote of common stockholders is generally required to take action under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws.
Dividends
Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding convertible preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds. We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Additionally, the terms of our Loan and Security Agreement entered into with Hercules Capital Inc. on February 28, 2018 restrict our ability to pay dividends.
Liquidation
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock.
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Rights and Preferences
Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our convertible preferred stock that we may designate in the future.
Fully Paid and Nonassessable
All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the notes, if any, will be fully paid and nonassessable.
Preferred Stock
The following description of preferred stock and the description of the terms of any particular series of preferred stock that we choose to issue hereunder and that will be set forth in the related prospectus supplement are not complete. These descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation relating to any series. The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series will be fixed by the certificate of designation relating to that series. The prospectus supplement also will contain a description of certain United States federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase and ownership of the series of preferred stock that is described in the prospectus supplement.
Our board of directors has been authorized to designate and issue up to an aggregate of 40,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series without action by the stockholders. The board of directors can fix the rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible future financings and acquisitions and other corporate purposes could, under certain circumstances, have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company and might harm the market price of our common stock. As of the date of this prospectus, there were no preferred stock issued and outstanding.
The prospectus supplement for a series of preferred stock will specify, among other things:
the maximum number of shares;
the designation of the shares;
the annual dividend rate, if any, whether the dividend rate is fixed or variable, the date or dates on which dividends will accrue, the dividend payment dates, and whether dividends will be cumulative;
the price and the terms and conditions for redemption, if any, including redemption at our option or at the option of the holders, including the time period for redemption, and any accumulated dividends or premiums;
the liquidation preference, if any, and any accumulated dividends upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;
any sinking fund or similar provision, and, if so, the terms and provisions relating to the purpose and operation of the fund;
the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion or exchange of shares of any other class or classes of our capital stock or any series of any other class or classes, or of any other series of
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the same class, or any other securities or assets, including the price or the rate of conversion or exchange and the method, if any, of adjustment;
the voting rights; and
any or all other preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights, privileges or qualifications, limitations or restrictions.
Options
As of September 30, 2020, we had outstanding options to purchase 9,790,437 shares of our common stock, with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.74 per share, under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan.
Warrants
Pursuant to the terms of certain warrant agreements, Hercules and Hercules Technology, have the right to purchase an aggregate of 31,352 shares of our common stock as of September 30, 2020. The shares issuable on exercise of the warrants are entitled to the piggyback registration rights and Form S-3 registration rights described below.
Registration Rights
We are party to an amended and restated investor rights agreement, dated as of November 7, 2017, as amended, pursuant to which certain of our stockholders, including certain holders of five percent or more of our capital stock and entities affiliated with certain of our directors, have the right to demand that we file a registration statement for their shares of our common stock or request that their shares of our common stock be covered by a registration statement that we are otherwise filing, including, in each case, shares of our common stock that were issued upon conversion of convertible preferred stock. These shares are referred to as registrable securities.
Demand Registration Rights
The holders of at least a majority of the registrable securities have the right to demand that we file, on no more than two occasions, a registration statement on Form S-1 to register all or a portion of their registrable securities, provided that the anticipated aggregate offering price of the registrable securities to be sold under the registration statement on Form S-1 exceeds $10.0 million. Depending on certain conditions, we may defer a demand registration for up to 90 days in any twelve-month period.
Piggyback Registration Rights
If we propose to file a registration statement under the Securities Act for the purposes of a public offering of our securities (including, but not limited to, registration statements relating to secondary offering of our securities but excluding (i) a registration statement relating to any employee benefit plan or (ii) with respect to any corporate reorganization or transaction under Rule 145 of the Securities Act, any registration statements related to the issuance or resale of securities issued in such a transaction or (iii) a registration related to stock issued upon conversion of debt securities), the holders of registrable securities are entitled to receive notice of such registration and to request that we include their registrable securities for resale in the registration statement. The underwriters of such offering will have the right to limit the number of shares to be included in such registration.
Form S-3 Registration Rights
A holder of at least 2,000,000 shares of registrable securities (including common stock issued upon conversion of convertible preferred stock) (as adjusted for any future stock dividend, combinations, splits, recapitalizations and the like) shall have the right to demand, subject to certain exceptions, that we file an unlimited number of registration statements on Form S-3 with respect to all of a part of the registrable securities owned by such holder provided that the anticipated aggregate offering price of the registrable
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securities to be sold under any such registration statement exceeds $5 million. Once the demand has been made, other holders of registrable securities may join in the registration statement.
Termination of Registration Rights
The demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registration rights described above will terminate five years after the completion of our initial public offering on July 2, 2018. In addition, the registration rights of a holder of registrable securities will expire if all of the holder’s registrable securities may be sold without limitation (and without the requirement for us to be in compliance with the current public information requirement) under Rule 144 of the Securities Act.
Expenses of Registration; Indemnification
We are generally required to bear all registration expenses incurred in connection with any offerings pursuant to the demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registration rights described above, other than underwriting commissions and discounts. The amended and restated investor rights agreement contains customary indemnification provisions with respect to registration rights.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Delaware Law
Some provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could make the following transactions more difficult: acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions that might result in a premium over the market price for our shares.
These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute
We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which prohibits persons deemed “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly-held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this provision may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the board of directors, such as discouraging takeover attempts that might result in a premium over the market price of our common stock.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
The ability to authorize undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.
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Special Stockholder Meetings
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairman of the board of directors, Chief Executive Officer or President, in the absence of a Chief Executive Officer, or our board of directors.
Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals
Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.
Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws eliminate the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.
Choice of Forum
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware, or any other action asserting an “internal corporate claim,” as defined in Section 115 of the DGCL.
This exclusive forum provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the extent that any such claims may be based upon federal law claims, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.
Additionally, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that unless a majority of the board of directors, acting on our behalf, consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America is the sole and exclusive forum for any action arising under the Securities Act.
Although our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could find that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.
Amendment of Charter Provisions
The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock, would require approval by holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of our then outstanding voting stock.
The provisions of the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the
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effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
The Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
Our common stock is listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “TCDA.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA 02021.
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may issue debt securities in one or more distinct series. This section summarizes the material terms of the debt securities that are expected to be common to all series. Most of the financial terms and other specific material terms, as well as any material U.S. federal income tax consequences, of any series of debt securities that we offer will be described in a prospectus supplement. Since the terms of specific debt securities may differ from the general information provided below, you should read both this prospectus and the relevant prospectus supplement and rely on information in the prospectus supplement that supersedes any contrary or inconsistent information below.
As required by federal law for all bonds and notes of companies that are publicly offered, the debt securities will be governed by a document called an “indenture.” An indenture is a contract between us and a financial institution acting as trustee on your behalf. The trustee has two main roles. First, the trustee can enforce your rights against us if we default. There are some limitations on the extent to which the trustee acts on your behalf, described in the second paragraph under “Events of Default.” Second, the trustee performs certain administrative duties for us.
Senior or subordinated debt securities will be issued by us under an indenture or indentures, as may be supplemented from time to time, between us, as issuer, and the trustee.
The indenture will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “TIA”). The terms “we,” “our” and “us,” when used to refer to an issuer of securities, means Tricida, Inc.
Because this section is a summary, it does not describe every aspect of the debt securities and the indenture. We urge you to read the indenture because it, and not this description, defines your rights as a holder of debt securities. For example, in this section, we use capitalized words to signify terms that are specifically defined in the indenture. Some of the definitions are repeated in this prospectus, or in the relevant prospectus supplement, but for the rest you will need to read the indenture. See “Where You Can Find More Information” for information on how to locate the indenture and any supplemental indentures that may be filed.
To the extent our term loan remains outstanding, we will need to obtain the consent of our lender in order to issue any debt securities.
General Provisions of the Indenture
Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement for a particular series, the debt securities covered by this prospectus will be direct, unsecured obligations of Tricida. Any senior securities will be unsecured and will rank equally with all other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness of Tricida. Any subordinated securities will be unsecured and will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full of the senior indebtedness of Tricida, as more fully described in a prospectus supplement.
The indenture provides that any debt securities proposed to be sold under this prospectus and an attached prospectus supplement (“offered debt securities”) and any debt securities issuable upon the exercise of debt warrants or upon conversion or exchange of other offered securities (“underlying debt securities”), as well as other debt securities, may be issued under the indenture in one or more series. Any secured indebtedness of ours will rank ahead of the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness.
You should read the prospectus supplement for the material terms of the offered debt securities and any underlying debt securities, including the following:
the title of the debt securities and whether the debt securities will be senior securities or subordinated securities of Tricida;
the total principal amount of the debt securities of the series and any limit on such total principal amount;
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if not the principal amount of the debt securities, the portion of the principal amount payable upon acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities or how this portion will be determined;
the date or dates, or how the date or dates will be determined or may be extended, when the principal of the debt securities will be payable;
the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, that the debt securities will bear, if any, or how the rate or rates will be determined, the date or dates from which any interest will accrue or how the date or dates will be determined, the interest payment dates, any record dates for these payments, whether payments of interest will be made in cash or in kind and the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;
any optional redemption provisions;
any sinking fund or other provisions that would obligate us to repurchase or otherwise redeem the debt securities;
the form in which we will issue the debt securities and whether we will have the option of issuing debt securities in “certificated” form;
if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are denominated and/or payable;
whether the amount of payments of principal, premium or interest, if any, on the debt securities will be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may be based, without limitation, on one or more currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices), and how these amounts will be determined;
the place or places, if any, other than or in addition to The City of New York, of payment, transfer, conversion and/or exchange of the debt securities;
if other than minimum denominations of $2,000 or any integral multiple of $1,000 above the minimum denomination in the case of registered securities issued in certificated form, the denominations in which the offered debt securities will be issued;
if the provisions of Article Fourteen of the indenture described under “defeasance” are not applicable and any provisions in modification of, in addition to or in lieu of any of these provisions;
whether and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts, in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities rather than pay the additional amounts (and the terms of this option);
whether the debt securities are subordinated and the terms of such subordination;
any provisions granting special rights to the holders of the debt securities upon the occurrence of specified events;
any changes or additions to the Events of Default or covenants contained in the applicable indenture;
whether the debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities and the applicable terms and conditions;
whether the debt securities are guaranteed; and
any other material terms of the debt securities.
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For purposes of this prospectus, any reference to the payment of principal of or premium or interest, if any, on the debt securities will include additional amounts if required by the terms of the debt securities.
The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder from time to time. Debt securities issued under the indenture when a single trustee is acting for all debt securities issued under the indenture are called the “indenture securities.” The indenture also provides that there may be more than one trustee thereunder, each with respect to one or more different series of indenture securities. See “-Resignation of Trustee” below. At a time when two or more trustees are acting under the indenture, each with respect to only certain series, the term “indenture securities” means the one or more series of debt securities with respect to which each respective trustee is acting. In the event that there is more than one trustee under the indenture, the powers and trust obligations of each trustee described in this prospectus will extend only to the one or more series of indenture securities for which it is trustee. If two or more trustees are acting under the indenture, then the indenture securities for which each trustee is acting would be treated as if issued under separate indentures.
The indenture does not contain any provisions that give you protection in the event we issue a large amount of debt, we repurchase a significant amount of equity or effect a recapitalization, or we are acquired by another entity.
We refer you to the applicable prospectus supplement for information with respect to any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or our covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.
We have the ability to issue indenture securities with terms different from those of indenture securities previously issued and, without the consent of the holders thereof, to reopen a previous issue of a series of indenture securities and issue additional indenture securities of that series unless the reopening was restricted when that series was created. Any additional indenture securities, together with all other outstanding indenture securities of that series, will constitute a single series of indenture securities under the indenture.
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be denominated in U.S. dollars and all payments on the debt securities will be made in U.S. dollars.
Payment of the purchase price of the debt securities must be made in immediately available funds.
The authorized denominations of debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars will be a minimum denomination of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 above the minimum denomination. The authorized denominations of foreign currency notes will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Interest and Interest Rates
Each debt security will begin to accrue interest from the date it is originally issued. The related prospectus supplement will describe the method of determining the interest rate.
Payment and Paying Agents
We will pay interest to the person listed in the trustee’s records as the owner of the debt security at the close of business on a particular day in advance of each regularly scheduled date for interest, even if that person no longer owns the debt security on the interest due date. That day, typically set at a date approximately two weeks prior to the interest due date, is called the “record date.” Because we will pay all the interest for an interest period to the holders on the record date, holders buying and selling debt securities must work out between themselves the appropriate purchase price. The most common manner is to adjust the sales price of the debt securities to prorate interest fairly between buyer and seller based on their respective ownership periods within the particular interest period. This prorated interest amount is called “accrued interest.”
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Payments on Global Securities
We will make payments on a global security in accordance with the applicable policies of the depositary as in effect from time to time. Under those policies, we will make payments directly to the depositary, or its nominee, and not to any indirect holders who own beneficial interests in the global security. An indirect holder’s right to those payments will be governed by the rules and practices of the depositary and its participants.
Payments on Certificated Debt Securities
We will make payments on a certificated debt security as follows. We will pay interest that is due on an interest payment date by check mailed on the interest payment date to the holder at his or her address shown on the trustee’s records as of the close of business on the regular record date. We will make payments of principal and premium, if any, duly and punctually to the office of the trustee.
Alternatively, if the holder asks us to do so, we may pay any amount that becomes due on the debt security by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account at a bank in New York City, on the due date. To request payment by wire, the holder must give the trustee or other paying agent appropriate transfer instructions at least 15 calendar days before the requested wire payment is due. In the case of any interest payment due on an interest payment date, the instructions must be given by the person who is the holder on the relevant regular record date. Any wire instructions, once properly given, will remain in effect unless and until new instructions are given in the manner described above. In addition, see the description under “Interest and Interest Rates.”
Material Covenants
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of debt securities that we offer will describe the material covenants included in the indenture and will be subject to negotiation between the holder and us. Such material covenants may include covenants with respect to payments of principal, premium (if any) and interest and limitations or restrictions with respect to a consolidation, merger sale or conveyance of us, restrictions on liens, or other covenants, limitations or restrictions on us.
Events of Default
An event of default with respect to the debt securities of any series in the indenture includes:
(a)default for 30 days in payment of any interest on the debt securities of such series when it becomes due and payable;
(b)default in payment of principal of or any premium on the debt securities of such series at maturity or upon redemption or repayment when the same becomes due and payable;
(c)default by us in the performance of any other covenant contained in the applicable indenture for the benefit of the debt securities of such series that has not been remedied by the end of a specified period of time after notice is given as specified in the indenture; and
(d)certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency and reorganization of Tricida.
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of debt securities that we offer will describe the events of default included in the indenture and will be subject to negotiation between the holder and us.
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Modification of the Indenture
We and the trustee may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities issued under such indenture, enter into supplemental indentures for, among others, one or more of the following purposes:
to evidence the succession of another corporation to us and the assumption by such successor of its obligations under the indenture and the debt securities;
to add covenants of Tricida or surrender any of its rights, or add any rights for the benefit of the holders of debt securities;
to cure any ambiguity, omission, defect or inconsistency in such indenture;
to establish the form or terms of any other series of debt securities, including any subordinated securities;
to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;
to evidence and provide the acceptance of any successor trustee with respect to the debt securities or one or more other series of debt securities under the indenture or to facilitate the administration of the trusts thereunder by one or more trustees in accordance with the indenture; and
to provide any additional events of default;
to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the indentures in respect of one or more series of debt securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination, shall become effective only when there is no security outstanding of any series created prior to the adoption of such addition, change or elimination;
to make any provisions with respect to the optional conversion rights of holders, including providing for the conversion of the debt securities into any other security or securities of ours, provided that such provisions are not adverse to the interests of the holders of any debt securities then outstanding;
to add any guarantee of one or more series of the debt securities; or
to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of debt securities pursuant to the indenture; provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of debt securities of such series and any related coupons or any other series of securities in any material respect.
With certain exceptions, the indenture or the rights of the holders of the debt securities may be modified by us and the trustee with the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities then outstanding affected thereby, but no such modification may be made without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected thereby that would:
change the maturity of the principal of, or any premium on, or any installment of principal of or interest on any debt securities, or reduce the principal amount or any premium or the rate or manner of calculating interest or any premium payable upon redemption or repayment of any debt securities, or change the dates or periods for any redemption or repayment or change any place of payment where, or the coin or currency in which, any principal, premium or interest is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption or repayment, on or after the redemption or repayment date);
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reduce the percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities, the consent whose holders is required for any such modification, or the consent of whose holders is required for any waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or certain defaults thereunder and their consequences provided for in the indenture; or
modify any of the provisions of certain sections of the indenture, including the provisions summarized in this paragraph, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of the indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each of the outstanding debt securities affected thereby.
Defeasance
The following provisions will be applicable to each series of debt securities unless we state in the applicable prospectus supplement that the provisions of covenant defeasance and full defeasance will not be applicable to that series.
Covenant Defeasance
Under current United States federal tax law, we can make the deposit described below and be released from some of the restrictive covenants in the indenture under which the particular series was issued. This is called “covenant defeasance.” In that event, you would lose the protection of those restrictive covenants but would gain the protection of having money and government securities set aside in trust to repay your debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following:
deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of such debt securities a combination of money and government or government agency debt securities or bonds in the relevant currency that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of such series in the relevant currency on their various due dates; and
deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that, under current United States federal income tax law, we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities of such series any differently than if we did not make the deposit and just repaid such debt securities ourselves at maturity.
If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you can still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit or the trustee is prevented from making payment. In fact, if one of the remaining Events of Default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities became immediately due and payable, there might be a shortfall. Depending on the event causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.
Full Defeasance
If there is a change in United States federal tax law, as described below, we can legally release ourselves from all payment and other obligations on the debt securities of a particular series (called “full defeasance”) if we put in place the following other arrangements for you to be repaid:
we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of the debt securities of such series a combination of money and government or government agency debt securities or bonds in the relevant currency that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of such series in the relevant currency on their various due dates; and
we must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion confirming that there has been a change in current United States federal tax law or an Internal Revenue Service ruling that allows us to make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities of such series any differently than if we did not make the deposit and just repaid such debt securities ourselves at maturity. Under current United States federal tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt
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securities of such series would be treated as though we paid you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds at the time the cash and debt securities or bonds were deposited in trust in exchange for your debt securities and you would recognize gain or loss on your debt securities at the time of the deposit.
If we ever did accomplish full defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities of such series. You could not look to us for repayment in the unlikely event of any shortfall. Conversely, the trust deposit would most likely be protected from claims of our lenders and other creditors if we ever became bankrupt or insolvent.
Covenant defeasance and full defeasance are both subject to certain conditions, such as no default or event of default occurring and continuing, and no breach of any material agreement.
Discharge of the Indenture
We may satisfy and discharge our obligations under the indenture by delivering to the trustee for cancellation all outstanding debt securities or by depositing with the trustee or the paying agent after the debt securities have become due and payable, whether at stated maturity, or any redemption or repayment date, or otherwise, cash sufficient to pay all of the outstanding debt securities and paying all other sums payable under the indenture.
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders
No recourse for the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on any debt security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, and no recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the indenture or in any supplemental indenture, or in any debt security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, shall be had against any director, officer, employee, or stockholder as such, past, present or future, of ours or any of our affiliates or any successor person, either directly or through us or any of our affiliates or any successor person, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that all such liability is hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of the indenture and the issue of the debt securities.
Governing Law
New York law will govern the indenture and the debt securities.
Form, Exchange and Transfer of Certificated Debt Securities
If registered debt securities cease to be issued in book−entry form, they will be issued:
only in fully registered certificated form,
without interest coupons, and
unless we indicate otherwise in the prospectus supplement, in a minimum denomination of $2,000 and amounts above the minimum denomination that are integral multiples of $1,000.
Holders may exchange their certificated debt securities of smaller denominations or combined into fewer debt securities of larger denominations, as long as the total principal amount is not changed.
Holders may exchange or transfer their certificated debt securities at the office of the trustee. We have appointed the trustee to act as our agent for registering debt securities in the names of holders transferring debt securities. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.
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Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their certificated securities, but they may be required to pay any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership.
If we have designated additional transfer agents for your debt security, they will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may appoint additional transfer agents or cancel the appointment of any particular transfer agent. We may also approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts.
If any certificated debt securities of a particular series are redeemable and we redeem less than all the debt securities of that series, we may block the transfer or exchange of those debt securities during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of redemption and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers or exchanges of any certificated debt securities selected for redemption, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unredeemed portion of any debt security that will be partially redeemed.
If a registered debt security is issued in book−entry form, only the depositary will be entitled to transfer and exchange the debt security as described in this subsection, since it will be the sole holder of the debt security.
Resignation of Trustee
The trustee may resign or be removed at any time with respect to one or more series of indenture securities provided that a successor trustee is appointed to act with respect to these series. In the event that two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of indenture securities under the indenture, each of the trustees will be a trustee of a trust separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee.
The Trustee under the Indenture
The trustee may be one of a number of banks with which we maintain ordinary banking relationships and from which we may obtain credit facilities and lines of credit in the future. The trustee may also serve as trustee under other indentures under which we are the obligor in the future.
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants for the purchase of our preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our preferred stock, common stock or debt securities and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase such securities will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:
the title of the warrants;
the offering price for the warrants, if any;
the aggregate number of warrants;
the designation and terms of the securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;
if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;
if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;
whether the warrants will be issued in registered form or bearer form;
information with respect to book entry procedures, if any;
the number and basic terms of the securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;
the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;
the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;
the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;
any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.
Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:
to vote, consent or receive dividends;
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receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or
exercise any rights as stockholders of us.
Holders of warrants to purchase debt securities will not be entitled to payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities purchasable on exercise, or to exercise any of the rights of the holders of such debt securities until such warrant is exercised.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent.
Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants
Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.
The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.
If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:
the title of the series of units;
identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;
the price or prices at which the units will be issued;
the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;
a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and
any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units
To the extent applicable, each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.
We, any unit agents and any of their agents may treat the registered holder of any unit certificate as an absolute owner of the units evidenced by that certificate for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to the units so requested, despite any notice to the contrary. See “Legal Ownership of Securities.
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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
We may issue rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock, debt securities or units. Rights may be issued independently or together with other securities and may or may not be transferable by the person purchasing or receiving the rights. In connection with any rights offering to our stockholders, we may enter into a standby underwriting, backstop or other arrangement with one or more underwriters or other persons pursuant to which such underwriters or other persons would purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such rights offering. In connection with a rights offering to our stockholders, we would distribute certificates evidencing the rights and a prospectus supplement to our stockholders on or about the record date that we set for receiving rights in such rights offering.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms of any rights we may issue, including some or all of the following:
the title and aggregate number of the rights;
the subscription price or a formula for the determination of the subscription price for the rights and the currency or currencies in which the subscription price may be payable;
if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the rights are issued and the number of rights issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;
the number or a formula for the determination of the number of the rights issued to each stockholder;
the extent to which the rights are transferable;
in the case of rights to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one right;
in the case of rights to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the type of stock and number of shares of stock purchasable upon exercise of one right;
the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the rights will expire (subject to any extension);
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the rights that may be exercised at any one time;
the extent to which such rights include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities;
if applicable, the procedures for adjusting the subscription price and number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of each right upon the occurrence of certain events, including stock splits, reverse stock splits, combinations, subdivisions or reclassifications of common stock or preferred stock;
the effect on the rights of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business;
the terms of any rights to redeem or call the rights;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the rights;
if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting, backstop or other purchase arrangement that we may enter into in connection with the rights offering;
25


if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. Federal income tax considerations; and
any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the rights.
Exercise of Rights
Each right will entitle the holder to purchase for cash or other consideration such shares of stock or principal amount of securities at the subscription price as shall in each case be set forth in, or be determinable as set forth in, the prospectus supplement relating to the rights offered thereby. Rights may be exercised as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement beginning on the date specified therein and continuing until the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the rights offered thereby. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised rights will become void.
Upon receipt of payment and a subscription certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the subscription agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the rights represented by such subscription certificate are exercised, a new subscription certificate will be issued for the remaining rights. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the rights may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for rights.
We may determine to offer any unsubscribed offered securities directly to stockholders, persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby underwriting, backstop or other arrangements, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Prior to exercising their rights, holders of rights will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon subscription, including, in the case of rights to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise any voting rights or, in the case of rights to purchase debt securities, the right to receive principal, premium, if any, or interest payments, on the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture.
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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES
We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.
Book-Entry Holders
We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.
Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.
As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.
Street Name Holders
We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.
For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not legal holders, of those securities.
Legal Holders
Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.
27


For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so.
Special Considerations for Indirect Holders
If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:
how it handles securities payments and notices;
whether it imposes fees or charges;
how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a legal holder, if that is permitted in the future;
how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.
Global Securities
A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.
Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.
A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “- Special Situations When A Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.
If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.
Special Considerations For Global Securities
As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to
28


securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.
If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:
an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;
an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;
an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;
the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security. We and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security. We and the trustee also do not supervise the depositary in any way;
the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities. There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.
Special Situations When A Global Security Will Be Terminated
In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.
A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:
if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;
if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.
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The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus in primary offerings (1) to or through underwriters or dealers, (2) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (3) through agents, or (4) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices. The prospectus supplement will include the following information:
the terms of the offering;
the names of any underwriters or agents;
the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;
the purchase price of the securities;
the net proceeds from the sale of the securities;
any delayed delivery arrangements;
any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;
any initial public offering price;
any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
any commissions paid to agents.
Sale through underwriters or dealers
If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account, including through underwriting, purchase, security lending or repurchase agreements with us. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. Underwriters may sell the securities in order to facilitate transactions in any of our other securities (described in this prospectus or otherwise), including other public or private transactions and short sales. Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the principal underwriters the respective amount of securities underwritten, the nature of the obligation of the underwriters to take the securities and the nature of any material relationship between an underwriter and us.
If dealers are used in the sale of securities offered through this prospectus, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction.
Direct sales and sales through agents
We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. Such securities may also be sold through agents designated from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable to the agent by us. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus
31


supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.
We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. The terms of any such sales will be described in the prospectus supplement.
Delayed delivery contracts
If the prospectus supplement indicates, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in the prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.
Market making, stabilization and other transactions
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, each series of offered securities will be a new issue and will have no established trading market. We may elect to list any series of offered securities on an exchange. Any underwriters that we use in the sale of offered securities may make a market in such securities, but may discontinue such market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the securities will have a liquid trading market.
Any underwriter may also engage in stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 104 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the underlying security in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions.
Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.
Derivative transactions and hedging
We, the underwriters or other agents may engage in derivative transactions involving the securities. These derivatives may consist of short sale transactions and other hedging activities. The underwriters or agents may acquire a long or short position in the securities, hold or resell securities acquired and purchase options or futures on the securities and other derivative instruments with returns linked to or related to changes in the price of the securities. In order to facilitate these derivative transactions, we may enter into security lending or repurchase agreements with the underwriters or agents. The underwriters or agents may affect the derivative transactions through sales of the securities to the public, including short sales, or by lending the securities in order to facilitate short sale transactions by others. The underwriters or agents may also use the securities purchased or borrowed from us or others (or, in the case of derivatives, securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives) to directly or indirectly settle sales of the securities or close out any related open borrowings of the securities.
Electronic auctions
We may also make sales through the Internet or through other electronic means. Since we may from time to time elect to offer securities directly to the public, with or without the involvement of agents, underwriters or dealers, utilizing the Internet or other forms of electronic bidding or ordering systems for
32


the pricing and allocation of such securities, you should pay particular attention to the description of that system we will provide in a prospectus supplement.
Such electronic system may allow bidders to directly participate, through electronic access to an auction site, by submitting conditional offers to buy that are subject to acceptance by us, and which may directly affect the price or other terms and conditions at which such securities are sold. These bidding or ordering systems may present to each bidder, on a so-called “real-time” basis, relevant information to assist in making a bid, such as the clearing spread at which the offering would be sold, based on the bids submitted, and whether a bidder’s individual bids would be accepted, prorated or rejected.
Upon completion of such an electronic auction process, securities will be allocated based on prices bid, terms of bid or other factors. The final offering price at which securities would be sold and the allocation of securities among bidders would be based in whole or in part on the results of the Internet or other electronic bidding process or auction.
General information
Agents, underwriters, and dealers may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification by us against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities being offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Sidley Austin LLP, New York, New York. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, as set forth in their reports which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge through the Internet. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933 relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. The registration statement and the documents referred to below under “Information Incorporated by Reference” are also available on our Internet website. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus.
INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus certain information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC (excluding any portions of any Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K):
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020;
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 8, 2020, August 6, 2020 and November 9, 2020, respectively;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 28, 2020, March 16, 2020, April 15, 2020 (solely with respect to Item 8.01), May 19, 2020, May 20, 2020, May 22, 2020, June 16, 2020, June 30, 2020, July 15, 2020, August 24, 2020, October 29, 2020 (solely with respect to Item 2.05, Item 5.02, Item 8.01 and the related exhibit 99.2), December, 4, 2020, December 8,
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2020 (solely with respect to Item 8.01 and the related exhibit 99.2), and January 11, 2021 (solely with respect to Item 1.01, Item 2.03 and the related exhibit 99.1);
the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 29, 2020; and
the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on June 25, 2018 pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement.
This prospectus may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. Neither we, nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, at no cost to the requester, a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should direct any requests for documents to Tricida, Inc., 7000 Shoreline Court, Suite 201, South San Francisco, CA 94080, Attention: Chief Financial Officer, telephone number: (415) 429-7800.
Our reports and documents incorporated by reference herein may also be found in the “Investor Relations” section of our website at tricida.com. Our website and the information contained in it or connected to it shall not be deemed to be incorporated into this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.
35








https://cdn.kscope.io/1e17f7953aa4a78a8990ebf492c5bff5-tricidalogo2c.jpg

Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
Rights to Purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock,
Debt Securities or Units
$250,000,000



_________________

PROSPECTUS
_________________





The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state or jurisdiction where such offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, Dated January 22, 2021
PROSPECTUS
$75,000,000
https://cdn.kscope.io/1e17f7953aa4a78a8990ebf492c5bff5-tricidalogo2b.jpg
Common Stock 
We will enter into a sales agreement, or the sales agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000 from time to time through Cowen acting as our agent.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “TCDA.” On January 21, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $7.15 per share.
Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cowen is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
The compensation to Cowen for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
_________________
INVESTING IN OUR COMMON STOCK INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT RISKS. SEE “RISK FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE S-6 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND UNDER SIMILAR HEADINGS IN THE OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS.
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE. 
Cowen
   The date of this prospectus is  , 2021.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
S-2


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer securities having an aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000 from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. The $75,000,000 of shares of our common stock that may be sold under this prospectus are included in the $250,000,000 of securities that may be sold under the registration statement.
Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.
This prospectus describes the terms of this common stock offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, you should rely on the information in this prospectus; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the sales agent is not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.
S-3


PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights certain information about us, our business, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page S-6 and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. As used in this prospectus, “we,” “us,” “Tricida” and “our” refer to Tricida, Inc., a Delaware corporation.
Overview
Our goal is to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, or CKD, through the treatment of metabolic acidosis. We are a pharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of our investigational drug candidate, veverimer (also known as TRC101), a non-absorbed, orally administered polymer designed to treat metabolic acidosis by binding and removing acid from the gastrointestinal, or GI, tract. Metabolic acidosis is a serious condition commonly caused by CKD and is believed to accelerate the progression of kidney deterioration. It can also lead to bone loss, muscle wasting and impaired physical function. Metabolic acidosis in patients with CKD is typically a chronic disease and, as such, requires long-term treatment to mitigate its deleterious consequences.
There are currently no FDA-approved therapies for treating chronic metabolic acidosis. We estimate that metabolic acidosis affects approximately 3 million patients with CKD in the United States, and we believe that treating metabolic acidosis and slowing the progression of CKD in patients with metabolic acidosis and CKD represents a significant unmet medical need and market opportunity.
Veverimer is an in-house discovered, new chemical entity. We have a broad intellectual property estate that we believe will provide patent protection for veverimer until at least 2038 in the United States, at least 2035 in Europe, Russia and Mexico, and at least 2034 in Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, and certain other markets.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware on May 22, 2013 and were granted certification of qualification in the state of California on August 5, 2013. Our principal offices are located at 7000 Shoreline Court, Suite 201, South San Francisco, California. Our telephone number is (415) 429-7800. Our website is www.tricida.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website address is not part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein.
Trademarks
Tricida and our logo are some of our tradenames used in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames, and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, our trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus appear without the ™ or ® symbol, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and tradenames.
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The Offering
Common Stock Offered By UsShares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000.
Common Stock to be Outstanding After This OfferingUp to 60,673,750 shares, assuming sales of $75,000,000 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $7.15 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on January 21, 2021. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
Plan of Distribution
“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-18 .
Use of ProceedsWe currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other purposes, working capital, capital expenditures, other corporate expenses and acquisitions of assets, licenses, products, technologies or businesses. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-10 of this prospectus.
Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page S-6 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Nasdaq Global Select Market SymbolTCDA
The number of shares of our common stock shown above to be outstanding after the completion of this offering is based on 50,184,240 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020, and excludes:
9,790,437 shares of common stock, with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.74 per share, issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding and 104,520 shares of common stock issuable upon vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of September 30, 2020 under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan;
687,068 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, as of September 30, 2020, plus any future increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan pursuant to provisions thereof that automatically increase the share reserve under the plan each year;
1,620,458 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 employee stock purchase plan, or the ESPP, plus any future increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance under the ESPP pursuant to provisions thereof that automatically increase the share reserve under the plan each year; and
31,352 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants held by Hercules Capital, Inc., or Hercules, and Hercules Technology III, L.P. as of September 30, 2020.
Except as otherwise indicated, the information in this prospectus assumes no exercise of the outstanding stock options and no conversion into shares of our common stock of our outstanding 3.50% convertible senior notes due 2027, or the Convertible Senior Notes.
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our common stock involves significant risks. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks described below and those discussed under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended September 30, 2020, and in subsequent filings that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to this Offering
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways with which you may not agree. Accordingly, you will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of the net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that the net proceeds will be invested or otherwise used in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for the Company.
Investors in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per share of the common stock they purchase.
Since the price per share of our common stock being offered is higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock, you will suffer substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of the common stock you purchase in this offering. See the section entitled “Dilution” in this prospectus for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you will incur if you purchase common stock in this offering. In addition, we have a significant number of options outstanding. If the holders of these options exercise such options, you may incur further dilution.
You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings and exercise of outstanding options and conversions.
In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.
In addition, we have a number of securities allowing the purchase of our common stock or that may convert at a pre-determined price to our common stock. As of January 21, 2021, 2,617,550 shares of common stock were reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive and employee stock purchase plans plan. As of that date, there were also options and warrants to purchase 11,987,356 shares of our common stock outstanding. The exercise of outstanding options having an exercise price per share that is less than the offering price per share in this offering will increase dilution to investors in this offering. Furthermore, we have $200.0 million aggregate principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes outstanding. The Convertible Senior Notes are convertible into cash, shares of the Company’s
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common stock or a combination of cash and shares of the Company’s common stock at the Company’s election at an initial conversion rate of 30.0978 shares of the Company’s common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the Convertible Senior Notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $33.23 per share of the Company’s common stock. The conversion rate is subject to customary adjustments. The conversion of some or all of the outstanding Convertible Senior Notes into shares of our common stock will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders.
We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock, and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.
We do not currently intend to pay any cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to invest our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth. Additionally, the terms of our Loan and Security Agreement entered into with Hercules Capital Inc. on February 28, 2018 restrict our ability to pay dividends. Therefore, you are not likely to receive any dividends on your common stock for the foreseeable future. Since we do not intend to pay dividends, your ability to receive a return on your investment will depend on any future appreciation in the market value of our common stock. There is no guarantee that our common stock will appreciate or even maintain the price at which our holders have purchased it.
It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares we will sell under the sales agreement, or the proceeds resulting from those sales.
Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver instruction to Cowen to sell shares of our common stock at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold through Cowen after our instruction will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock during the sales period, the limits we set with Cowen in any instruction to sell shares, and the demand for our common stock during the sales period. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate during this offering, it is not currently possible to predict the number of shares that will be sold or the proceeds to be raised in connection with those sales.
The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and accordingly may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold in this offering. In addition, subject to the final determination by our board of directors or any restrictions we may place in any applicable placement notice, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
The common stock is equity and is subordinate to our existing and future indebtedness, including our outstanding Convertible Senior Notes.
Shares of the common stock are equity interests and do not constitute indebtedness. As such, shares of the common stock will rank junior to all indebtedness, including our outstanding Convertible Senior Notes and other non-equity claims with respect to assets available to satisfy claims on our Company. Additionally, our Board of Directors is authorized to issue series of preferred stock without any action on the part of shareholders of our common stock. Holders of our common stock are subject to the prior dividend, liquidation preferences, terms of redemption, conversion rights and voting rights, if any, of any holders of our preferred stock or depositary shares representing such preferred stock then outstanding.
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains or incorporates by reference forward-looking statements within the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, concerning our business, operations, financial performance and condition, as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business, operations, financial performance and condition as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business, operations, financial performance and condition. Any statements contained or incorporated by reference herein that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “potential,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” and other similar expressions that are predictions of or indicate future events and future trends, or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
estimates of our expenses, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;
the prospects of veverimer (also known as TRC101), our only investigational drug candidate, which is still in development;
our ability to obtain approval of our New Drug Application, or NDA, for veverimer from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, under either conventional approval or the Accelerated Approval Program, if at all;
our ability to resolve the issues identified by the FDA in a Complete Response Letter related to our NDA for veverimer;
our expectations regarding the timing of the completion of any nonclinical or clinical study;
the design of our ongoing VALOR-CKD trial (also known as TRCA-303), including the sample size, trial duration, endpoint definition, event rate assumptions and eligibility criteria;
our expectations regarding the timing of the enrollment, endpoint accrual, completion and reporting of our VALOR-CKD trial;
the outcome and results of our VALOR-CKD trial;
the market acceptance or commercial success of veverimer, if approved, and the degree of acceptance among physicians, patients, patient advocacy groups, health care payers and the medical community;
our expectations regarding competition, potential market size and the size of the patient population for veverimer, if approved for commercial use;
our expectations regarding our ability to satisfy the covenants under our credit facility with Hercules Capital, Inc. and Hercules Technology III, L.P.;
our expectations regarding the safety, efficacy and clinical benefit of veverimer;
our ability to achieve and maintain regulatory approval of veverimer, and any related requirements, restrictions, limitations and/or warnings in the label of veverimer;
our sales, marketing or distribution capabilities and our ability to commercialize veverimer, if we obtain regulatory approval;
our current and future agreements with third parties in connection with the manufacturing, commercialization, packaging and distribution of veverimer;
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our expectations regarding the ability of our contract manufacturing partners to produce veverimer in the quantities and timeframe that we will require;
our expectations regarding our future costs of goods;
our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel;
the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering veverimer;
potential claims relating to our intellectual property and third-party intellectual property;
the duration of our intellectual property estate that will provide protection for veverimer;
our ability to establish collaborations in lieu of obtaining additional financing;
the potential impact of pandemics, including the recent 2019 novel coronavirus disease, or COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2, on the financial markets in general and on our business in particular; and
our financial performance.
These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate and management’s beliefs and assumptions and are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. As a result, any or all of our forward-looking statements in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus may turn out to be inaccurate. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and our most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q and in other filings with the SEC.
Potential investors are urged to consider these factors carefully in evaluating the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $75 million from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with Cowen as a source of financing.
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other purposes, working capital, capital expenditures, other corporate expenses and acquisitions of assets, licenses, products, technologies or businesses. Pending the use of the proceeds from this offering, we may invest the proceeds in interest-bearing, investment-grade securities, certificates of deposit or government securities.
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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock, you will experience dilution to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 was $160.8 million, or $3.20 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020. Dilution with respect to net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.
After giving effect to the sale of $75,000,000 of shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $7.15 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on January 21, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $233.4 million, or $3.85 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.65 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $3.30 per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:
Assumed public offering price per share$7.15
Net tangible book value per share of as September 30, 2020$3.20 
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering$0.65 
As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020, after giving effect to this offering$3.85 
Dilution per share to new investors$3.30 
The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 10,489,510 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $7.15 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on January 21, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $75,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $7.15 per share shown in the table above, assuming $75,000,000 of shares of our common stock is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $4.01 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $4.14 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $7.15 per share shown in the table above, assuming $75,000,000 of shares of our common stock is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $3.68 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $2.47 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.
The foregoing table and calculations are based on 50,184,240 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020, and excludes:
9,790,437 shares of common stock, with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.74 per share, issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding and 104,520 shares of common stock issuable upon vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of September 30, 2020 under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan;
687,068 shares of common stock reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, as of September 30, 2020, plus any future increases in the number of
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shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan pursuant to provisions thereof that automatically increase the share reserve under the plan each year;
1,620,458 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 employee stock purchase plan, or the ESPP, plus any future increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance under the ESPP pursuant to provisions thereof that automatically increase the share reserve under the plan each year; and
31,352 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants held by Hercules Capital, Inc., or Hercules, and Hercules Technology III, L.P. as of September 30, 2020.
The above illustration of dilution per share to investors participating in this offering assumes no exercise of outstanding options to purchase our common stock and no conversion into shares of our common stock of our outstanding Convertible Senior Notes. To the extent that any outstanding options or warrants are exercised, or our Convertible Senior Notes are converted into shares, or new options are issued under the equity benefit plans, or we issue additional shares of common stock or convertible securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description is a general summary of the terms of the shares of common stock that we may issue. The description below does not include all of the terms of the shares of common stock and should be read together with our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws. This description also summarizes relevant provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or “DGCL.” Therefore, please carefully consider the actual provisions of the amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which have been filed with the SEC as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and the DGCL.
General
Our authorized capital stock consists of 400,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 40,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of September 30, 2020, there were outstanding:
50,184,240 shares of our common stock;
9,790,437 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options;
31,352 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrant; and
104,520 shares of our common stock issuable upon vesting of restricted stock units.
Common Stock
Voting Rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held of record for the election of directors and on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. In the election of directors, a plurality of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders is sufficient to elect a director. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors. In all other matters, except as noted below under “Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Delaware Law” a majority vote of common stockholders is generally required to take action under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws.
Dividends
Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding convertible preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds. We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Additionally, the terms of our Loan and Security Agreement entered into with Hercules Capital Inc. on February 28, 2018 restrict our ability to pay dividends.
Liquidation
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock.
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Rights and Preferences
Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our convertible preferred stock that we may designate in the future.
Fully Paid and Nonassessable
All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the notes, if any, will be fully paid and nonassessable.
Preferred Stock
Our board of directors has been authorized to designate and issue up to an aggregate of 40,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series without action by the stockholders. The board of directors can fix the rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible future financings and acquisitions and other corporate purposes could, under certain circumstances, have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company and might harm the market price of our common stock. As of the date of this prospectus, there were no preferred stock issued and outstanding.
Options
As of September 30, 2020, we had outstanding options to purchase 9,790,437 shares of our common stock, with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.74 per share, under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan.
Warrants
Pursuant to the terms of certain warrant agreements, Hercules and Hercules Technology, have the right to purchase an aggregate of 31,352 shares of our common stock as of September 30, 2020. The shares issuable on exercise of the warrants are entitled to the piggyback registration rights and Form S-3 registration rights described below.
Registration Rights
We are party to an amended and restated investor rights agreement, dated as of November 7, 2017, as amended, pursuant to which certain of our stockholders, including certain holders of five percent or more of our capital stock and entities affiliated with certain of our directors, have the right to demand that we file a registration statement for their shares of our common stock or request that their shares of our common stock be covered by a registration statement that we are otherwise filing, including, in each case, shares of our common stock that were issued upon conversion of convertible preferred stock. These shares are referred to as registrable securities.
Demand Registration Rights
The holders of at least a majority of the registrable securities have the right to demand that we file, on no more than two occasions, a registration statement on Form S-1 to register all or a portion of their registrable securities, provided that the anticipated aggregate offering price of the registrable securities to be sold under the registration statement on Form S-1 exceeds $10.0 million. Depending on certain conditions, we may defer a demand registration for up to 90 days in any twelve-month period.
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Piggyback Registration Rights
If we propose to file a registration statement under the Securities Act for the purposes of a public offering of our securities (including, but not limited to, registration statements relating to secondary offering of our securities but excluding (i) a registration statement relating to any employee benefit plan or (ii) with respect to any corporate reorganization or transaction under Rule 145 of the Securities Act, any registration statements related to the issuance or resale of securities issued in such a transaction or (iii) a registration related to stock issued upon conversion of debt securities), the holders of registrable securities are entitled to receive notice of such registration and to request that we include their registrable securities for resale in the registration statement. The underwriters of such offering will have the right to limit the number of shares to be included in such registration.
Form S-3 Registration Rights
A holder of at least 2,000,000 shares of registrable securities (including common stock issued upon conversion of convertible preferred stock) (as adjusted for any future stock dividend, combinations, splits, recapitalizations and the like) shall have the right to demand, subject to certain exceptions, that we file an unlimited number of registration statements on Form S-3 with respect to all of a part of the registrable securities owned by such holder provided that the anticipated aggregate offering price of the registrable securities to be sold under any such registration statement exceeds $5 million. Once the demand has been made, other holders of registrable securities may join in the registration statement.
Termination of Registration Rights
The demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registration rights described above will terminate five years after the completion of our initial public offering on July 2, 2018. In addition, the registration rights of a holder of registrable securities will expire if all of the holder’s registrable securities may be sold without limitation (and without the requirement for us to be in compliance with the current public information requirement) under Rule 144 of the Securities Act.
Expenses of Registration; Indemnification
We are generally required to bear all registration expenses incurred in connection with any offerings pursuant to the demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registration rights described above, other than underwriting commissions and discounts. The amended and restated investor rights agreement contains customary indemnification provisions with respect to registration rights.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Delaware Law
Some provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could make the following transactions more difficult: acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions that might result in a premium over the market price for our shares.
These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
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Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute
We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which prohibits persons deemed “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly-held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this provision may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the board of directors, such as discouraging takeover attempts that might result in a premium over the market price of our common stock.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
The ability to authorize undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.
Special Stockholder Meetings
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairman of the board of directors, Chief Executive Officer or President, in the absence of a Chief Executive Officer, or our board of directors.
Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals
Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.
Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws eliminate the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.
Choice of Forum
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware, or any other action asserting an “internal corporate claim,” as defined in Section 115 of the DGCL.
This exclusive forum provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the extent that any such claims may be based upon federal law claims, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.
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Additionally, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that unless a majority of the board of directors, acting on our behalf, consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America is the sole and exclusive forum for any action arising under the Securities Act.
Although our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could find that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.
Amendment of Charter Provisions
The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock, would require approval by holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of our then outstanding voting stock.
The provisions of the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
The Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
Our common stock is traded on Nasdaq under the symbol “TCDA.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA 02021.
S-17


PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We plan to enter into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may offer and sell from time to time up to $75,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.
Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.
The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen up to $60,000 of Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering, and for certain other expenses, including Cowen’s FINRA counsel fees in an amount up to $10,000. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions and reimbursements payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $380,000.
The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.
Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on Nasdaq on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, and the net proceeds to us.
We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.
Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilizes our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on Nasdaq and trades under the symbol “TCDA”. The transfer agent of our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
S-18


Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.
S-19


LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the issuance of our common stock offered in this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Sidley Austin LLP, New York, New York. Cowen & Company, LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York. As of January 21, 2021, Geoffrey W. Levin, a partner of Sidley Austin LLP, beneficially owned approximately 7,895 shares of our common stock.
EXPERTS
Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, as set forth in their reports which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge through the Internet. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933 relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. The registration statement and the documents referred to below under “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” are also available on our Internet website. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus certain information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC (excluding any portions of any Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K):
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020;
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 8, 2020, August 6, 2020 and November 9, 2020, respectively;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 28, 2020, March 16, 2020, April 15, 2020 (solely with respect to Item 8.01), May 19, 2020, May 20, 2020, May 22, 2020, June 16, 2020, June 30, 2020, July 15, 2020, August 24, 2020, October 29, 2020 (solely with respect to
S-20


Item 2.05, Item 5.02, Item 8.01 and the related exhibit 99.2), December, 4, 2020, December 8, 2020 (solely with respect to Item 8.01 and the related exhibit 99.2), and January 11, 2021 (solely with respect to Item 1.01, Item 2.03 and the related exhibit 99.1);
the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 29, 2020; and
the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on June 25, 2018 pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement.
This prospectus may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. Neither we, nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, at no cost to the requester, a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should direct any requests for documents to Tricida, Inc., 7000 Shoreline Court, Suite 201, South San Francisco, CA 94080, Attention: Chief Financial Officer, telephone number: (415) 429-7800.
Our reports and documents incorporated by reference herein may also be found in the “Investor Relations” section of our website at tricida.com. Our website and the information contained in it or connected to it shall not be deemed to be incorporated into this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.
S-21


$75,000,000
https://cdn.kscope.io/1e17f7953aa4a78a8990ebf492c5bff5-tricidalogo2c.jpg
Common Stock
PROSPECTUS
Cowen
          , 2021



Part II
Information Not Required in the Prospectus
Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses (other than the actual Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee and FINRA filing fee), other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by the registrant in connection with the offering of the securities being registered.
Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee$27,275 
FINRA filing fee38,000
Accounting fees and expenses*
Legal fees and expenses*
Printing and engraving*
Transfer agent fees and expenses*
Miscellaneous expenses*
Total$             — *
________________
*Estimated expenses not presently known.
Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law provides that a corporation may indemnify directors and officers as well as other employees and individuals against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with any threatened, pending or completed actions, suits or proceedings in which such person is made a party by reason of such person being or having been a director, officer, employee or agent to the registrant. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides that Section 145 is not exclusive of other rights to which those seeking indemnification may be entitled under any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise. The registrant’s By-laws provide for indemnification by the registrant of its directors, officers and employees to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law. The registrant has entered into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and officers to provide these directors additional contractual assurances regarding the scope of the indemnification set forth in the registrant’s Certificate of Incorporation and amended and restated By-laws and to provide additional procedural protections. There is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or executive officer of the registrant for which indemnification is sought.
Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to provide in its certificate of incorporation that a director of the corporation shall not be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) for unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases, redemptions or other distributions, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. The registrant’s Certificate of Incorporation provides for such limitation of liability.
The registrant maintains standard policies of insurance under which coverage is provided (a) to its directors and officers against loss arising from claims made by reason of breach of duty or other wrongful act, and (b) to the registrant with respect to payments which may be made by the registrant to such officers and directors pursuant to the above indemnification provision or otherwise as a matter of law.
In any underwriting agreement the Company enters into, the underwriters may agree to indemnify, under certain conditions, the Company, its directors, its officers and persons who control the Company
II-1


within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, against certain liabilities.
The sales agreement, a form of it is filed as Exhibit 1.2 to this registration statement, provides for indemnification of us and our directors and officers by Cowen and Company, LLC against certain liabilities under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.
Insofar as the forgoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, executive officers, or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
Item 16. Exhibits
Exhibit No.Description of Exhibit
1.1*Form of Underwriting Agreement
1.2
3.1
3.2
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
II-2


4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13*Certificate of designation, preferences and rights with respect to any preferred stock issued hereunder.
4.14*Form of Warrant with respect to each warrant issued hereunder.
4.15
4.16*Form of Note.
4.17*Form of Unit Agreement.
5.1
5.2
23.1
23.2
Consent of Sidley Austin LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1 and Exhibit 5.2).
24.1
25.1The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.**
________________
* To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.
** To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
Item 17. Undertakings
(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the
II-3


information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(A)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(B)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to the effective date.
(5)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer and sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
II-4


(6)That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(7)Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding), is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(8)To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

II-5


Signatures
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement on Form S-3 to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in South San Francisco, State of California, on January 22, 2021.
TRICIDA, INC.
By:/s/ Gerrit Klaerner
Name: Gerrit Klaerner, Ph.D.
Title: Chief Executive Officer and President
Power of Attorney
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Gerrit Klaerner, Ph.D. and Geoffrey M. Parker, and each of them acting individually, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of each to act alone, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement on Form S-3 (including post-effective amendments and any related registration statements filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) and otherwise) with all exhibits thereto and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of each to act alone, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or his or her or their substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
II-6


Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
SignatureTitleDate
/s/ Gerrit Klaerner
Chief Executive Officer,
President and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
January 22, 2021
Gerrit Klaerner, Ph.D.
/s/ Geoffrey M. Parker
Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President
(Principal Financial Officer)
January 22, 2021
Geoffrey M. Parker
/s/ Annie Yoshiyama
Chief Accounting Officer and Vice President of Finance
(Principal Accounting Officer)
January 22, 2021
Annie Yoshiyama
/s/ Klaus VeitingerChairman of the Board of DirectorsJanuary 22, 2021
Klaus Veitinger, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A
/s/ Robert J. AlpernDirectorJanuary 22, 2021
Robert J. Alpern, M.D.
/s/ David BonitaDirectorJanuary 22, 2021
David Bonita, M.D.
/s/ Sandra I. CoufalDirectorJanuary 22, 2021
Sandra I. Coufal, M.D.
/s/ Kathryn FalbergDirectorJanuary 22, 2021
Kathryn Falberg
/s/ David HirschDirectorJanuary 22, 2021
David Hirsch, M.D., Ph.D.
II-7
Document
Exhibit 1.2
TRICIDA, INC.
$75,000,000
COMMON STOCK
SALES AGREEMENT
[__], 2021
Cowen and Company, LLC
599 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Tricida, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:
1.Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed, or to be filed, by the Company and after such Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Common Stock.
The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “ATM Prospectus”) included as part of such registration statement, and shall, if necessary, prepare a prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “Prospectus Supplement”) to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement. The Company shall furnish to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, if any, relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective



amendment thereto, as amended when it becomes effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, or any subsequent registration statement on Form S-3 filed pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act by the Company to cover any Placement Shares, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The ATM Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, if any, in the form in which such ATM Prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is consented to by Cowen, hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,” (ii) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”).
2.Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares under the Placement Notice have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding or amending those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the
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Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.
3.Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. In the event the Company engages Cowen for a sale of Placement Shares that would constitute a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act (a “Block Sale”), the Company will provide Cowen, at Cowen’s reasonable request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date (as defined below), the opinions of counsel, accountant’s letter and officers’ certificates set forth in Section 8 hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as Cowen shall reasonably request. Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made through Nasdaq or on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock. Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and, by notice to Cowen given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to offer or sell any Placement Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or would reasonably be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, or (ii) at any time from and
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including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.
4.Suspension of Sales.
(a)The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a suspension is in effect any obligation under section 7(m), 7(n) and 7(o) with respect to delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to Cowen, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.
(b)If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Placement Shares under this Agreement.
(c)Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.
5.Settlement.
(a)Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.
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(b)Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of Cowen, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.
6.Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that as of (i) the date of this Agreement, (ii) each Time of Sale (as defined below), (iii) each Settlement Date, and (iv) each Bring-Down Date (as defined below) (each date included in (i) through (iv), a “Representation Date”):
(a)Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information related to the Registration Statement. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S‑3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements of General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.
(b)No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed will comply or complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each Representation Date, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each Representation Date, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions
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from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Agent’s Information (as defined below). There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. As used herein, “Time of Sale” means with respect to each offering of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the time of Cowen’s initial entry into contracts with purchasers for the sale of such Placement Shares.
(c)Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was required to be filed with the Commission) delivered to Cowen for use in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares contemplated herein have been and will be identical to the versions of such documents transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.
(d)Not an Ineligible Issuer. The Company currently is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”
(e)Distribution of Offering Material By the Company. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.
(f)The Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.
(g)Authorization of the Common Stock. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered, will be duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and the issuance of the Placement Shares is not subject to any preemptive or similar rights that have not been complied with or otherwise effectively waived.
(h)No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights. There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.
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(i)No Material Adverse Change. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Prospectus, the Company has not, (i) sustained any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree or (ii) entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company, in each case otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus; and, since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there has not been (x) any change in the capital stock (other than as a result of (A) the exercise, if any, of stock options or the award, if any, of stock options or restricted stock in the ordinary course of business pursuant to the Company’s equity plans that are described in the Prospectus or (B) the issuance, if any, of stock upon conversion of Company securities as described in the Prospectus) or long-term debt of the Company or (y) any Material Adverse Effect (as defined below); as used in this Agreement, “Material Adverse Effect or “Material Adverse Change shall mean a material adverse change or effect, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change or effect, in or affecting (i) the business, properties, general affairs, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, prospects or results of operations of the Company, or (ii) the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement, including the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares, or to consummate the transactions contemplated in the Prospectus.
(j)Real Property. The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property (other than with respect to Intellectual Property (as defined below), which is addressed exclusively in subsection (gg)) and good and marketable title to all personal property owned by them, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects except such as are described in the Prospectus or such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company; and any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company or the Subsidiaries are, to the Company’s knowledge, held by the Company or the Subsidiaries under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with such exceptions as are not material and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property and buildings by the Company.
(k)Incorporation and Good Standing of the Company and its Subsidiaries. The Company has been (i) duly organized and is validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization, with power and authority (corporate and other) to own its properties and conduct its business as described in the Prospectus, and (ii) duly qualified as a foreign corporation for the transaction of business and is in good standing (where such concept exists) under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which it owns or leases properties or conducts any business so as to require such qualification, except, in the case of this clause (ii), where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Each subsidiary of the Company (each a “Subsidiary” has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation or limited liability company in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization and has the requisite power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Prospectus. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or
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other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the most recently ended fiscal year and other than (i) those subsidiaries not required to be listed on Exhibit 21.1 by Item 601 of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act and (ii) those subsidiaries formed since the last day of the most recently ended fiscal year.
(l)Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Prospectus and the Registration Statement and all of the issued shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and conform in all material respects to the description of the Common Stock contained in the Prospectus.
(m)Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments; No Further Authorizations or Approvals Required. The issue and sale of the Placement Shares and the compliance by the Company with this Agreement and the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated in this Agreement and the Prospectus will not conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, (i) any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of the Subsidiaries is subject, (ii) the amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the Company, or (iii) any statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any Subsidiary or any of their properties, except, in the case of clause (i) or (iii), for such defaults, breaches, or violations that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and no consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any such court or governmental agency or body is required for the issue and sale of the Placement Shares or the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except such as have been obtained under the Securities Act, the approval by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) of the terms and arrangements, the approval for listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders, registrations or qualifications as may be required under state securities or Blue Sky laws in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Placement Shares. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is (i) in violation of its amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws, (ii) in violation of any statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any Subsidiary or any of their properties, or (iii) in default in the performance or observance of any material obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, lease or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties may be bound, except, in the case of the foregoing clauses (ii) and (iii), for such violations or defaults as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(n)No Material Actions or Proceedings. There are no legal or governmental proceedings pending to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or of which any property of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is the subject which, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, would individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and, to the Company’s knowledge, no such proceedings are threatened or contemplated by governmental authorities or threatened by others.
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(o)Company Not an “Investment Company”. The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Prospectus, will not be an “investment company”, as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).
(p)Independent Accountants. The auditors, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company, are independent public accountants as required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.
(q)Company’s Accounting System. The Company maintains a system of internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that (i) complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to the Company, (ii) has been designed by the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and (iii) is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (A) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, (B) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to maintain accountability for assets, (C) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, (D) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences and (E) the interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language (“XBRL”), if any, included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement is accurate to the extent required; and, except as disclosed in the Prospectus, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and the Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (it being understood that this subsection shall not require the Company to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as of an earlier date than it would otherwise be required to so comply under applicable law).
(r)No Change in Internal Controls. Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially and adversely affected, or is reasonably likely to materially and adversely affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
(s)Disclosure Controls. The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to the Company; such disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer by others within those entities; and such disclosure controls and procedures are effective.
(t)No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary
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has (i) directly or indirectly made, offered, promised or authorized any unlawful payment, contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful benefit or expense; (ii) made, offered, promised or authorized any direct or indirect unlawful payment; or (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law.
(u)Compliance with Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with the requirements of applicable anti-money laundering laws, including, but not limited to, the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT ACT of 2001, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and the applicable anti-money laundering laws of the various jurisdictions in which the Company and its Subsidiaries conduct business (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.
(v)Compliance with OFAC. Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company is currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Government, including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”), or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person,” the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, the United Nations Security Council, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Placement Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person, or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such funding, is the subject or the target of Sanctions or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions.
(w)Preparation of the Financial Statements. The financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules and notes, present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and its Subsidiaries at the dates indicated and the statement of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company for the periods specified; said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved. The supporting schedules, if any, present fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein. The selected financial data and the summary financial information included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly, in all material respects, the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements included therein. Except as included therein, no historical or pro forma financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus under the Securities Act or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement and the
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Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Act, to the extent applicable.
(x)Registration Rights. There are no persons with registration rights or other similar rights to have any securities registered pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered by the Company under the Securities Act except as disclosed in the Prospectus and except as have been validly waived or complied with in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.
(y)Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with current or former employees or officers of the Company or any of the Subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s knowledge, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of the Company’s principal suppliers, manufacturers or contractors that, if it occurred, would, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect on the Company. The Company is not a party to any collective bargaining agreement.
(z)Insurance. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries have insurance covering its properties, operations, personnel and businesses, including business interruption insurance, which the Company believes is reasonably adequate to protect the Company and the Subsidiaries and their business; and the Company has not (i) received notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance or (ii) any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.
(aa)Compliance with Health Care Laws. The Company and the Subsidiaries are and at all times have been, in compliance in all material respects with all Health Care Laws (defined herein) and have not engaged in any activities which are, as applicable, cause for false claims liability, civil penalties, or mandatory or permissive exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid, or any other U.S. state or federal healthcare program. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” shall mean the federal Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)), the Physician Payments Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), the civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.), the criminal false statements and representations law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (42 U.S.C. § 1320d et seq.), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.), the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, the exclusion law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7), the civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.), Medicare (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act), and Medicaid (Title XIX of the Social Security Act), and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and all other similar applicable local, state, and federal laws and regulations relating to the regulation of the Company and the Subsidiaries. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is a party to or has any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreement, deferred prosecution agreement, monitoring agreement, consent decree, settlement
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order, plan of correction or similar agreement imposed by any governmental authority. The Company has not received any notification, correspondence or any other written or oral communication, including, without limitation, any Form FDA-483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or any similar regulatory authority, or any written notification of any pending or threatened claim, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action, from any governmental authority of potential or actual non-compliance by, or liability of, the Company under any Health Care Laws.
(bb)Privacy Laws The Company and each Subsidiary is, and at all times has been, in compliance with all applicable data privacy and security laws and regulations, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation) (EU 2016/679), for which any non-compliance with same would be reasonably likely to create a material liability (collectively, the “Privacy Laws”). The Company and each Subsidiary has in place, materially complies with, and takes appropriate steps reasonably designed to ensure compliance with their policies and procedures relating to data privacy and security and the collection, storage, use, disclosure, handling, and analysis of personal data that is subject to the Privacy Laws (the “Policies”). At all times since inception, the Company has provided notice of its Policies then in effect to its customers, employees, third-party vendors and representatives as required by and in material compliance with applicable Privacy Laws. To the knowledge of the Company, the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or any other agreement referred to in this Agreement will not result in a breach or violation of any Privacy Laws or Policies. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries (i) has not received written notice from any governmental authority of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, (ii) is not currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation, or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law, and (iii) is not a party to any order or decree that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.
(cc)IT Systems. The Company’s information technology assets and equipment, computers, technology systems and other systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries as currently conducted. The Company and the Subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards designed to maintain and protect its confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation and security of all IT Systems (including all personal data and sensitive, confidential or regulated data (the “Confidential Data”)) owned by the Company and the Subsidiaries and used in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries. The Company has established commercially reasonable disaster recovery and security plans, procedures and facilities consistent with industry standards and practice. To the Company’s knowledge, there have been no material security breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or access to the IT Systems or the Confidential Data maintained by the Company. The Company and the Subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or
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governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Confidential Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Confidential Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification.
(dd)Licenses. The Company and each Subsidiary possesses, and is in compliance with the terms of, all applications, certificates, approvals, clearances, registrations, exemptions, franchises, licenses, permits, consents and other authorizations necessary to conduct their respective businesses (collectively, “Licenses”), issued by the appropriate Governmental Authorities, including, without limitation, all Licenses required by the FDA, or any component thereof, the National Institutes of Health (“NIH”) and/or by any other U.S., state, local or foreign government or drug regulatory agency (collectively, the “Regulatory Agencies”) except where the failure to do so could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. All Licenses are in full force and effect. The Company and each Subsidiary has fulfilled and performed all of its obligations with respect to the Licenses and, no event has occurred which allows, or after notice or lapse of time would allow, revocation or termination thereof or results in any other impairment of the rights of the holder of any License except as could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Licenses and no Regulatory Agency has, to the Company’s knowledge, taken any action to limit, suspend or revoke any License possessed by the Company or any Subsidiary.
(ee)Clinical Data and Regulatory Compliance. The pre-clinical studies and clinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols submitted to the FDA or any foreign Regulatory Agency exercising comparable authority, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional and scientific standards, and all applicable laws and regulations, except where the failure to be so conducted could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; the descriptions of the pre-clinical studies and clinical trials conducted by or, to the Company’s knowledge, on behalf of the Company and the Subsidiaries, and the results thereof, contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are, to the Company’s knowledge, accurate and complete, in all material respects; the Company is not aware of any other pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, the results of which reasonably call into question the results described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus when viewed in the context in which such results are described and the clinical status of development; and, except as disclosed in the Prospectus neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notices or correspondence from the FDA, any state, local or foreign Regulatory Agency exercising comparable authority or any Institutional Review Board requiring the termination, suspension, material modification or clinical hold of any pre-clinical studies or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company and the Subsidiaries.
(ff)Suspension or Debarment of Employees. Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its or their respective officers, employees or directors, has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. federal health care program or human clinical research or, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or
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exclusion, or convicted of any crime or engaged in any conduct that would reasonably be expected to result in debarment under 21 U.S.C. § 335a.
(gg)Intellectual Property. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus: (1) the Company and the Subsidiaries own, possess, license or have other rights to use on reasonable terms patents and patent applications, copyrights, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, trade names, service names and know-how used in the conduct, or the proposed conduct, of the business of the Company in the manner described in the Prospectus (collectively, the “Company Intellectual Property”) except to the extent such failure to own, possess or have other rights to use such Company Intellectual Property would not result in a Material Adverse Effect, and the Company is not aware of any facts that would lead it to conclude that the conduct of the Company’s businesses would infringe, misappropriate or otherwise conflict in any material respect with any such rights of others; (2) the Company is not aware of material infringement by third parties of any such Company Intellectual Property owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company; (3) the Company is not aware of any defects in the preparation and filing of any of material patent applications within the Company Intellectual Property; (4) to the knowledge of the Company, any material patent applications within the Company Intellectual Property are being prosecuted so as to avoid the abandonment thereof; (5) to the knowledge of the Company, any material patents within the Company Intellectual Property are being maintained and the required maintenance fees (if any) are being paid; (6) there is no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company's rights in or to any Company Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim; (7) there is no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope or enforceability of any such Company Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim; (8) there is no pending, or to the knowledge of the Company, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others that the Company's business infringes, misappropriates, or otherwise violates, or to the Company’s knowledge would, upon the commercialization of any product or service described in the Prospectus as under development, infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate any valid and presently in force patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other valid and enforceable proprietary rights of others, and the Company is unaware of any other fact which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim, (9) the Company Intellectual Property has not been adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such adjudication; and (10) the Company and the Subsidiaries have taken all reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard the Company Intellectual Property. To the Company’s knowledge, none of the Company Intellectual Property or technology (including information technology and outsourced arrangements) employed by the Company or the Subsidiaries has been obtained or is being used by the Company or any Subsidiary in violation of any contractual obligation binding on the Company or its Subsidiaries or any of their respective officers, directors or employees.
(hh)Patents. To the knowledge of the Company, the Company has duly and properly filed or caused to be filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the "PTO") and applicable foreign and international patent authorities all material patent applications owned by the
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Company; the Company has complied with or will timely comply with the PTO's duty of candor and disclosure for all such patent applications owned by the Company and has made no material misrepresentation therein; to the knowledge of the Company, except as disclosed in the Prospectus, the patent applications owned by the Company disclose patentable subject matters, and the Company has not been notified of any inventorship challenges nor has any interference or other administrative proceeding been declared or provoked which has not been finally resolved nor is any material fact known by the Company that would preclude the issuance of patents with respect to the applications owned by the Company or would render such patents invalid or unenforceable; to the Company's knowledge, except as disclosed in the Prospectus, no third party possesses rights to the Company's Intellectual Property, that, if exercised, could enable such party to develop products competitive to those the Company intends to develop as described in the Prospectus.
(ii)Statistical and Market-Related Data. Any statistical and market-related data included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate, in all material respects and, to the extent required, the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources.
(jj)Certificates and Permits. The Company and each Subsidiary possesses all licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign Regulatory Agencies having jurisdiction over the Company that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and the Company has not received written notice of any revocation or modification of any such license, certificate, permit or authorization, except where such revocation or modification would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(kk)Tax Law Compliance. The Company and its consolidated subsidiaries have filed all material foreign, federal, state and local tax returns required to be filed by them through the date hereof, or have duly requested extensions thereof, and have paid all material taxes shown as due thereon, and all such tax returns are true and correct, in all material respects. No deficiencies for taxes of the Company or any Subsidiary have been assessed by a tax authority, and no deficiencies for taxes of the Company or any Subsidiary have, to the Company’s knowledge, been proposed by a tax authority, except for such deficiencies as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect on the Company.  
(ll)No Price Stabilization or Manipulation. The Company has not taken and will not take, directly or indirectly, any action that is designed to or that has constituted or might reasonably be expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Placement Shares.
(mm)Brokers. The Company is not a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the
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Company or the Agent for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.
(nn)Related Party Transactions. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any Subsidiary, on the one hand, and the directors, officers or stockholders of the Company, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents and in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.
(oo)XBRL. The interactive data in XBRL, if any, included in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto to the extent required.
(pp)Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
(qq)Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. All of the Placement Shares that have been or may be sold under this Agreement have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq, subject to official notice of issuance; the Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon and at all times after the Nasdaq shall have approved the Placement Shares for listing, it will be in compliance with all applicable corporate governance requirements set forth in the Nasdaq’s listing rules that are then in effect.
(rr)No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.
Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.
The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.
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7.Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:
(a)Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information (insofar as it relates to the transactions contemplated hereby), (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen (provided, however, (A) that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, (B) the Company has no obligation to provide Cowen any advance copy of such filing or to provide Cowen an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name Cowen and does not relate to the transactions herein, and (C) the only remedy that Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to provide Cowen with such copy or the filing of such amendment or supplement despite Cowen’s objection shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, (A) that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company this Agreement, (B) the Company has no obligation to provide Cowen any advance copy of such filing or to provide Cowen an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name Cowen and does not relate to the transaction herein provided, and (C) the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to provide Cowen with such copy or the filing of such amendment or supplement despite Cowen’s objection shall be to cease making sales under in this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) during the term of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise. Prior to the initial sale of any Placement Shares, the Company shall file a final ATM Prospectus pursuant to Rule 424(b) relating to the Placement Shares.
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(b)Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.
(c)Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if in the judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company.
(d)Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.
(e)Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably
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request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.
(f)Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.
(g)Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $10,000 and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s outside counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000.
(h)Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”
(i)Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) offer, issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any equity incentive plan, stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the offer or issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance or (iv) any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding. For avoidance of doubt,
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nothing herein shall be construed to restrict the Company’s ability, or require the Company to provide notice to Cowen, to file a registration statement with the Commission.
(j)Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.
(k)Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.
(l)Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market. The Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K, the number of the Placement Shares sold through Cowen under this Agreement, and the Net Proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.
(m)Bring-Down Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time (i) the Company files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares; (ii) the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) the Company files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) the Company files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release or other information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a "Bring-Down Date"); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days of any Bring-Down Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Bring-Down Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Bring-Down Date) and the next occurring Bring-Down Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Bring-Down Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or
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Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice.
(n)Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of Sidney Austin LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(n)(i) and Exhibit 7(n)(ii), respectively, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Bring-Down Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Bring-Down Date).
(o)Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the "Comfort Letters"), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.
(p)[Chief Financial Officer’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(p) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall have delivered to Cowen a certificate executed by the Chief Financial Officer of the Company (“CFO Certificate”), dated as of such date, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen.]
(q)Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Placement Shares to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the
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Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.
(r)Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company believes is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.
(s)Compliance with Laws. The Company shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct its businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company shall conduct its businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.
(t)Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.
(u)Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.
(v)No Offer to Sell. Other than the Prospectus or a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.
(w)Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its subsidiaries will use their reasonable best efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
(x)Affirmation. Each Placement Notice delivered by the Company to Cowen shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to Cowen pursuant hereto are true and correct at the time of delivery of such Placement Notice, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Placement Notice acceptance).
8.Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement Notice will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the
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representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and thereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:
(a)Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.
(b)No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
(c)No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.
(d)Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Change or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is
23



so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.
(e)Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).
(f)Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Cooley LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.
(g)Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).
(h)Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).
(i)Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.
(j)[CFO Certificate. Cowen shall have received the CFO Certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(p) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(p).]
(k)No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.
(l)Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.
(m)Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.
(n)Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an
24



application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.
(o)No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).
9.  Indemnification and Contribution.
(a) Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, reasonable expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable and documented investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with solely Agent’s Information. “Agent’s Information” means, solely, the following information in the Prospectus: the [_______] paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.
(b) Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer and director of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any
25



amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.
(c) Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party in writing of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable and documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the reasonable and documented fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable and documented fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.
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(d) Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, reasonable expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but
27



the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.
10.  Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.
11.  Termination.
(a) Cowen shall have the right by giving notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder, or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).
(b) The Company shall have the right, by giving three (3) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
(c) Cowen shall have the right, by giving three (3) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
(d) Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen
28



on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
(e) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.
(f) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.
12.  Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1130, Attention: General Counsel, email: Bradley.friedman@cowen.com, with a copy to Cooley LLP, 55 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001, Attention: Daniel I. Goldberg, email: dgoldberg@cooley.com; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to to the address of the Company set forth on the cover of the Registration Statement. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.
13.  Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.
29



14.  Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.
15.  Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.
16.  Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.
17.  Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby.
18.  Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:
(a) Cowen has been retained solely to act as an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares contemplated hereby and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;
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(b) the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;
(c) the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and
(d) the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen in connection with this Agreement, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.
19.  Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com).
[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.
Very truly yours,
COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
By:
Name:
Title:
ACCEPTED as of the date
first-above written:
TRICIDA, INC.
By:
Name:
Title:
32



SCHEDULE 1
FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE
From:        [                                   ]
Cc:            [                                   ]
To:            [                                   ]
Subject:     Cowen At the Market Offering—Placement Notice
Gentlemen:
Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Tricida, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated [__], 2021 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [ ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $_______ per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].



SCHEDULE 2
Notice Parties
Company
Bob McKague
EVP, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer
Cowen
Michael J. Murphy
Managing Director
William FollisManaging Director



SCHEDULE 3
Compensation
Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Common Stock pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.



Exhibit 7(m)
OFFICER CERTIFICATE
The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Tricida, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated, [__], 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned.
(i)The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and
(ii)The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.
By:
Name:
Title:
Date:



Exhibit 7(n)(i)
Matters to be covered by initial OPINION OF COMPANY COUNSEL

[FORM OF OPINION]
2


Exhibit 7(n)(ii)
Matters to be covered by subsequent Company Counsel Opinions
[FORM OF OPINION]




[Exhibit 7(p)]
[CFO Certificate]
2
Document
Exhibit 5.1

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SIDLEY AUSTIN LLP
787 SEVENTH AVENUE
NEW YORK,, NY 10019
+1 212 839 5300
+1 212 839 5599 FAX


AMERICA l ASIA PACIFIC l EUROPE








January 22, 2021
Tricida, Inc.
7000 Shoreline Court, Suite 201
South San Francisco, CA 94080
Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3
Ladies and Gentlemen:
We refer to the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”) being filed by Tricida, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the registration of up to an aggregate total offering price of $250,000,000 of:
a)shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”);
b)shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”);
c)debt securities of the Company (the “Debt Securities”);
d)warrants to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock or Debt Securities (the “Warrants”);
e)units (the “Units”), each consisting of two or more types of the securities listed in clauses (a) through (d) above as well as (f) below; and
f)rights to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities or Units (the “Rights”)
The Common Stock, the Preferred Stock, the Debt Securities, the Warrants, the Units and the Rights are collectively referred to herein as the “Securities.”
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement:
(1)the Debt Securities will be issued under an indenture (the “Indenture”) to be entered into between the Company and a trustee (the “Trustee”);
(2)the Warrants will be issued under a warrant agreement (the “Warrant Agreement”) to be entered into between the Company and a warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”);
Sidley Austin (NY) LLP is a Delaware limited liability partnership doing business as Sidley Austin LLP and practicing in affiliation with other Sidley Austin partnerships.



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Tricida, Inc.
January 22, 2021


Page 2

(3)the Units will be issued pursuant to a unit agreement (the “Unit Agreement”) to be entered into between the Company and a unit agent (the “Unit Agent”); and
(4)any Rights will be issued under a rights agreement (the “Rights Agreement”) to be entered into between the Company and a rights agent (the “Rights Agent”)
in each case substantially in the form that has been or will be filed as one or more exhibits to the Registration Statement.
This opinion letter is being delivered in accordance with the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act.
We have examined the Registration Statement, the exhibits thereto, the certificate of incorporation of the Company, as amended to the date hereof (the “Charter”), the bylaws of the Company, as amended and restated to the date hereof (the “Bylaws”), and the resolutions (the “Resolutions”) adopted by the board of directors of the Company (the “Board”) relating to the Registration Statement. We have also examined originals, or copies of originals certified to our satisfaction, of such agreements, documents, certificates and statements of the Company and others, and have examined such questions of law, as we have considered relevant and necessary as a basis for this opinion letter. We have assumed the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity of all persons and the conformity with the original documents of any copies thereof submitted to us for examination. As to facts relevant to the opinions expressed herein, we have relied without independent investigation or verification upon, and assumed the accuracy and completeness of, certificates, letters and oral and written statements and representations of public officials and officers and other representatives of the Company.
Based on and subject to the foregoing and the other limitations, qualifications and assumptions set forth herein, we are of the opinion that:
1.With respect to an offering of shares of Common Stock covered by the Registration Statement, such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to the sale of such shares of Common Stock, if any shall be required, shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have duly adopted final resolutions in conformity with the Charter, the Bylaws and the Resolutions authorizing the issuance and sale of such shares of Common Stock;




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and (iv) certificates representing such shares of Common Stock shall have been duly executed, countersigned and registered and duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement upon payment of the agreed consideration therefor in an amount not less than the aggregate par value thereof or, if any such shares of Common Stock are to be issued in uncertificated form, the Company’s books shall reflect the issuance of such shares of Common Stock in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement upon payment of the agreed consideration therefor in an amount not less than the aggregate par value thereof.
2.The issuance and sale of each series of Preferred Stock covered by the Registration Statement will be duly authorized, and each share of such series of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to the sale of such series of Preferred Stock shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have duly adopted final resolutions in conformity with the Charter, the Bylaws and the Resolutions establishing the designations, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such series of Preferred Stock and authorizing the issuance and sale of such series of Preferred Stock; (iv) the Company shall have filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware a Certificate of Designations with respect to such series of Preferred Stock in accordance with the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”) and in conformity with the Charter and such final resolutions; and (v) certificates representing such series of Preferred Stock shall have been duly executed, countersigned and registered and duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor in an amount not less than the aggregate par value thereof or, if any shares of such series of Preferred Stock are to be issued in uncertificated form, the Company’s books shall reflect the issuance of such shares in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement upon payment of the agreed consideration therefor in an amount not less than the aggregate par value thereof.
3.The Debt Securities of each series covered by the Registration Statement will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act and the Indenture (including any




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necessary supplemental indenture) shall have been qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to such series of Debt Securities shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) the Indenture shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and the Trustee; (iv) all necessary corporate action shall have been taken by the Company to authorize the form, terms, execution, delivery, performance, issuance and sale of such series of Debt Securities as contemplated by the Registration Statement, the prospectus supplement relating to such Debt Securities and the Indenture and to authorize the execution, delivery and performance of a supplemental indenture or officers’ certificate establishing the form and terms of such series of Debt Securities as contemplated by the Indenture; (v) a supplemental indenture or officers’ certificate establishing the form and terms of such series of Debt Securities shall have been duly executed and delivered by the Company and the Trustee (in the case of such a supplemental indenture) or by duly authorized officers of the Company (in the case of such an officers’ certificate), in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Charter, the Bylaws, final resolutions of the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof and the Indenture; and (vi) the certificates evidencing the Debt Securities of such series shall have been duly executed and delivered by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and issued, all in accordance with the Charter, the Bylaws, final resolutions of the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, the Indenture and the supplemental indenture or officers’ certificate, as the case may be, establishing the form and terms of the Debt Securities of such series, and shall have been duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
4.Each issue of Warrants covered by the Registration Statement will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to such issue of Warrants and the Common Stock, Preferred Stock or Debt Securities issuable upon exercise of such Warrants shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) a Warrant Agreement relating to such issue of Warrants shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and duly executed and delivered by the Warrant Agent named in the Warrant Agreement; (iv) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have duly adopted final resolutions in conformity with the Charter, the Bylaws and the Resolutions authorizing the execution and delivery of the Warrant Agreement and the execution, delivery, issuance and sale of such issue of Warrants; (v) if such Warrants are exercisable for Common Stock, the actions described in




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paragraph 1 above shall have been taken; (vi) if such Warrants are exercisable for Preferred Stock, the actions described in paragraph 2 above shall have been taken; (vii) if such Warrants are exercisable for Debt Securities, the actions described in paragraph 3 above shall have been taken and (viii) certificates representing such issue of Warrants shall have been duly executed, countersigned and issued in accordance with such Warrant Agreement and shall have been duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
5.With respect to an offering of Units covered by the Registration Statement, such Units will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post- effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to such Units and the Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants or Rights, as the case may be, included as a component of such Units shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) an Unit Agreement relating to such issue of Units shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and duly executed and delivered by the Unit Agent named in the Unit Agreement, (iv) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have duly adopted final resolutions in conformity with the Charter, the Bylaws and the Resolutions authorizing the execution and delivery of the Units Agreement and the execution, delivery, issuance and sale of such Units; (v) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Common Stock, the actions described in paragraph 1 above shall have been taken; (vi) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Preferred Stock, the actions described in paragraph 2 above shall have been taken; (vii) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Debt Securities, the actions described in paragraph 3 above shall have been taken; (viii) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Warrants, the actions described in paragraph 4 above shall have been taken; (ix) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Rights, the actions described in paragraph 6 below shall have been taken; and (x) certificates representing such Units shall have been duly executed, countersigned and registered in accordance with such Unit Agreement and shall have been duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement to purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
6.With respect to an offering of Rights covered by the Registration Statement, such Rights will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post- effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus




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supplement with respect to such Rights and the Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities or Units, as the case may be, issuable upon exercise of such Rights shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) a Rights Agreement relating to such Rights shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and duly executed and delivered by the Rights Agent named in the Rights Agreement; (iv) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have duly adopted final resolutions in conformity with the Charter, the Bylaws and the Resolutions authorizing the execution and delivery of the Rights Agreement and the execution, delivery, issuance and sale of such Rights; (v) if such Rights relate to the issuance and sale of Common Stock, the actions described in paragraph 1 above shall have been taken; (vi) if such Rights relate to the issuance and sale of Preferred Stock, the actions described in paragraph 2 above shall have been taken; (vii) if such Rights relate to the issuance and sale of Debt Securities, the actions described in paragraph 3 above shall have been taken; (viii) if such Rights relate to the issuance and sale of Units, the actions described in paragraph 5 above shall have been taken; and (xi) certificates representing such Rights shall have been duly executed, countersigned and registered in accordance with the Rights Agreement and shall have been duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
Our opinions are subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium, fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent transfer and other similar laws relating to or affecting creditors’ rights generally and to general equitable principles (regardless of whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law), including concepts of commercial reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing and the possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief. Our opinion is also subject to (i) provisions of law which may require that a judgment for money damages rendered by a court in the United States of America be expressed only in United States dollars, (ii) requirements that a claim with respect to any Debt Securities or other obligations that are denominated or payable other than in United States dollars (or a judgment denominated or payable other than in United States dollars in respect of such claim) be converted into United States dollars at a rate of exchange prevailing on a date determined pursuant to applicable law and (iii) governmental authority to limit, delay or prohibit the making of payments outside of the United States of America or in a foreign currency.
For the purposes of this letter, we have assumed that, at the time of the issuance, sale and delivery of any of the Securities:
(i)the Securities being offered will be issued and sold as contemplated in the Registration Statement and the prospectus supplement relating thereto;




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(ii)the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of each Indenture, each Warrant Agreement, each Unit Agreement and each Rights Agreement, as applicable, and the issuance sale and delivery of the Securities will not (A) contravene or violate the Charter or Bylaws, (B) violate any law, rule or regulation applicable to the Company, (C) result in a default under or breach of any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company or any order, judgment or decree of any court or governmental authority applicable to the Company, or (D) require any authorization, approval or other action by, or notice to or filing with, any court or governmental authority (other than such authorizations, approvals, actions, notices or filings which shall have been obtained or made, as the case may be, and which shall be in full force and effect);
(iii)the authorization thereof by the Company will not have been modified or rescinded, and there will not have occurred any change in law affecting the validity, legally binding character or enforceability thereof; and
(iv)the Charter and the Bylaws, each as currently in effect, will not have been modified or amended and will be in full force and effect.
We have further assumed that each Warrant Agreement, each Rights Agreement, each Unit Agreement, each Warrant, each Right, each Unit, each Indenture, each indenture supplement to the Indenture and each Debt Security will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.
With respect to each instrument or agreement referred to in or otherwise relevant to the opinions set forth herein (each, an “Instrument”), we have assumed, to the extent relevant to the opinions set forth herein, that (i) each party to such Instrument (if not a natural person) was duly organized or formed, as the case may be, and was at all relevant times and is validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization or formation, as the case may be, and had at all relevant times and has full right, power and authority to execute, deliver and perform its obligations under such Instrument; (ii) such Instrument has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by each party thereto; and (iii) such Instrument was at all relevant times and is a valid, binding and enforceable agreement or obligation, as the case may be, of, each party thereto.
This opinion letter is limited to the DGCL and the laws of the State of New York (excluding the securities laws of the State of New York). We express no opinion as to the laws, rules or regulations of any other jurisdiction, including, without limitation, the federal laws of the United States of America or any state securities or blue sky laws.




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We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion letter as an Exhibit to the Registration Statement and to all references to our Firm included in or made a part of the Registration Statement. In giving such consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act.
Very truly yours,
/s/ Sidley Austin LLP



Document
Exhibit 5.2

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SIDLEY AUSTIN LLP
787 SEVENTH AVENUE
NEW YORK,, NY 10019
+1 212 839 5300
+1 212 839 5599 FAX


AMERICA l ASIA PACIFIC l EUROPE


January 22, 2021
Tricida, Inc.
7000 Shoreline Court, Suite 201
South San Francisco, CA 94080

Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3
Ladies and Gentlemen:
We refer to the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”), being filed by Tricida, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) as it relates to the registration under the Securities Act of shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”) with an aggregate sales price of up to $75,000,000. The Shares are to be sold by the Company pursuant to a Sales Agreement to be entered to between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, the form of which has been filed as Exhibit 1.2 to the Registration Statement (the “Sales Agreement”).
This opinion letter is being delivered in accordance with the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act.
We have examined the Registration Statement, the Company’s preliminary prospectus included therein relating to the Shares, the Sales Agreement, the Company’s certificate of incorporation (as amended and restated, the “Certificate of Incorporation”), the Bylaws of the Company, as amended to the date hereof (the “Bylaws”) and the resolutions (the “Resolutions”) adopted by the board of directors of the Company (the “Board”) relating to the Registration Statement and the Sales Agreement. We have also examined originals, or copies of originals certified to our satisfaction, of such agreements, documents, certificates and statements of the Company and other corporate documents and instruments, and have examined such questions of law, as we have considered relevant and necessary as a basis for this opinion letter. We have assumed the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity of all persons and the conformity with the original documents of any copies thereof submitted to us for examination. As to facts relevant to the opinions expressed herein, we have relied without independent investigation or verification upon, and assumed the accuracy and completeness of, certificates, letters and oral and written statements and representations of public officials and officers and other representatives of the Company.
Based on the foregoing, we are of the opinion that the Shares will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any
Sidley Austin (NY) LLP is a Delaware limited liability partnership doing business as Sidley Austin LLP and practicing in affiliation with other Sidley Austin partnerships.



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necessary post-effective amendment), shall have been declared effective under the Securities Act, (ii) the Company’s final prospectus relating to the Shares and their issuance and sale pursuant to the Sales Agreement has been filed with the Commission in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, (iii) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have duly adopted final resolutions in conformity with the Certificate of Incorporation, the Bylaws and the Resolutions, setting the price of the Shares, and authorizing the issue and sale of the Shares, and (iv) certificates representing such Shares shall have been duly executed, countersigned and registered and duly delivered to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor in an amount not less than the par value thereof or, if any such Shares are to be issued in uncertificated form, the Company’s books shall reflect the issuance of such Shares to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor in an amount not less than the par value thereof, all in accordance with the Sales Agreement.
For the purposes of this opinion letter, we have assumed that, at the time of the issuance, sale and delivery of Shares:
(i)the authorization thereof by the Company will not have been modified or rescinded, and there will not have occurred any change in law affecting the validity thereof;
(ii)the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, as currently in effect, will not have been modified or amended and will be in full force and effect; and
(iii)the Company will have sufficient authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock from which to issue as the Shares.
This opinion letter is limited to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. We express no opinion as to the laws, rules or regulations of any other jurisdiction, including, without limitation, the federal laws of the United States of America or any state securities or blue sky laws.
We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion letter as an Exhibit to the Registration Statement and to all references to our Firm included in or made a part of the Registration Statement. In giving such consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act.




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Very truly yours,
/s/ Sidley Austin LLP


Document
Exhibit 23.1
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
We consent to the reference of our firm under the caption “Experts” in the Registration Statement on Form S-3, related Base Prospectus of Tricida, Inc. for the registration of up to $250,000,000 of its common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, units, rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock, debt securities or units, and related Sales Agreement Prospectus of Tricida, Inc. for the registration of up to $75,000,000 of its common stock, and to the incorporation by reference therein of our reports dated March 2, 2020, with respect to the financial statements of Tricida, Inc., and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting of Tricida, Inc., included in its Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
Redwood City, California
January 22, 2021